Better Landfill Management

Better Landfill Management

Plastic shopping bags are not a litter problem in North America due to our waste and recycling management programs and an educated public.

There is ample evidence from municipally sponsored buy research paper online write my essay now litter audits conducted across North America that shows that plastic shopping bags represent only about 0.4% of all litter by unit count –  that’s 4/10th of 1% or less than ½ a bag per 100 littered items.

In the Maritimes, proper landfill management is a critical issue to prevent windblown litter escaping into the environment and blowing into the waterways.

According to Environment Canada, Newfoundland and Labrador may rank as the windiest province in Canada. It experiences Category 1 and Category 2 Hurricane winds quite often on the island making landfill management a nightmare. Windblown waste – paper and plastic – is a serious environmental problem that must be addressed through a different landfill management process than is currently being used on the island. The best system given the islands climate is a bale system that would see all waste compressed into cubes and bound so that it cannot escape when it is put into landfill.

A category one hurricane has wind speeds averaging 119-153 km/h. Damage from these wind speeds can result in well-constructed frame homes facing damage on roofs, shingles, vinyl siding and gutters. Large branches of trees will snap and shallowly rooted trees may be toppled. Extensive damage to power lines and poles likely will result in power outages that could last a few to several days.

A category two hurricane sustains wind speeds of 154-177 km/h with extremely dangerous winds that will cause extensive damage: Well-constructed frame homes could sustain major roof and siding damage. Many shallowly rooted trees will be snapped or uprooted and block numerous roads. Near-total power loss is expected with outages that could last from several days to weeks.

The good news is that when it comes to better landfill management, there is a wide array of technologies and systems available to control or eliminate the problem of windblown litter. These include prevention techniques such as load management, compaction, soil covers, and other suppression systems and a variety of litter control systems using different types of fencing, netting and mechanical vacuums. There are closed and open systems and semi-closed systems that can be employed to stop wind-blown litter leakage from any website.

1. Closed Systems – Energy From Waste (EFW)

Durham, Ontario EFW Facility
  • All solid waste is collected in a transfer facility and used as fuel to generate electricity.
  • A waste-to-energy plant converts solid waste into electricity and/or heat – an ecological, cost-effective way of energy recovery.  The energy plant works by burning waste at high temperatures and using the heat to make steam.
  • The steam then drives a turbine that creates electricity or can be used for district heating (e.g. PEI’s cogeneration facility). The only residual is ash. These facilities also recycle metals that are in the waste stream.

 

2. Semi-Closed systems – Solid Waste Balefulls

  • Landfills constructed of baled trash can extend the life of a landfill by 20 to 40 years and significantly reduce landfilling costs on a per ton basis.
  • Trash is compacted into rectangular bales called balefills at either a landfill or transfer facility, wrapped with steel ties and placed into a landfill cell in stacked rows. In this system, recycled materials can be removed prior to the baling process.

Balefill benefits:

  • Reduced operational costs
  • Reduced litter
  • Eliminates need for daily cover
  • Increased landfill density
  • Extends the life of the landfill

3. Open Systems: Better Management with Compaction & Different Kind of Suppression Systems

  • Preventing litter from escaping from the active face reduces the need for later collection and litter pick up.
  • Litter needs to be contained with multiple layers of control.
  • Loads should be pushed and compacted immediately to anchor loose materials.

Covers

  • Covers are used as litter suppression systems to prevent blowing litter. They are used daily, on an intermediate basis and on a permanent basis as a proven method to contain the waste and prevent blowing litter.
  • Daily Cover: Placed over the garbage at the end of the day as a suppression technique. There are 3 different types of daily cover:
    • Soil (15 cm or 30 cm)
    •  A reusable tarp
    •  A spray-on mulch cover system.
  • The use of a tarp and spray- mulch can extend the life of the landfill a number of years.

 

 

 

 

Intermediate Covers

  • Intermediate covers are used for inactive areas. An intermediate or temporary cover of about 30 inches of soil will be used to cover over the existing waste until garbage is placed in the area again.

 

 

 

 

Clay Capping & Seeding

  • As an area of landfill reaches capacity, buy research paper online write my essay now a final cover is placed over the waste to seal it in. Final cover consists of low permeable clay which is then topped with topsoil laced with grass seed.
    Clay Capping & Seeding

 

 

 

 

Fencing

  • Portable, temporary and permanent fencing provide another level of protection. Netting which is very cost effective is usually deployed at the perimeter of the landfill on poles 20-40 feet high to add another layer of litter protection.